General

How much ibuprofen can i give my dog

How much ibuprofen can i give my dog

How much ibuprofen can i give my dog

The results of the trial on the impact of a short course of ibuprofen on the treatment of acute pn, nausea and vomiting, demonstrated that ibuprofen is as effective as an opiate for the relief of acute pn, but that it did not provide any advantage in alleviating the acute or delayed effects of chemotherapy, and did not lead to sedation in the treatment of post-operative pn.

In a comparison of ibuprofen with either morphine or pethidine in treating acute pn, ibuprofen appeared to offer no advantage in post-operative pn relief when administered twice a day.

In a study that compared the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of ibuprofen with acetaminophen in a large number of normal volunteers, both drugs reduced the body temperature and the level of the inflammatory marker, interleukin-6, but the effect of the NSD was much greater than that of the acetaminophen.

In a study that compared the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of ibuprofen with indomethacin in the management of post-traumatic arthritis, both drugs were equally effective in reducing pn, but the NSD was more effective than the analgesic in improving range of motion and reducing pn when the shoulder was moved.

The incidence of side-effects from NSD therapy is reduced to a third of that seen with other analgesics because the drugs do not cause sedation. This is true of both the older, broad-spectrum NSDs and the newer, more selective agents. In addition to their analgesic actions, the NSDs may also reduce inflammation and reduce fever by suppressing prostaglandin production.

This article gives a brief introduction to the role of NSDs in clinical practice. The basic principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are given.

How much ibuprofen can i give my dog

In humans, the median peak plasma concentrations of the racemic mixture are attned after 3-5 hours following oral administration of a therapeutic dose (100-200 mg). Peak plasma concentrations are about twice as high in a patient with renal imprment than in a normal patient (2-6 times for the active enantiomer).

When ibuprofen is given in single oral doses to elderly patients, the absorption is generally delayed, and peak plasma concentrations are lower than in younger patients (3-8 times lower). The extent of absorption is also increased in the elderly. It is, therefore, important to take the drug at the usual therapeutic dose at least 2 hours before breakfast.

In healthy volunteers given ibuprofen in a dose of 600 mg, peak plasma concentrations of the active enantiomer were achieved after 3-4 hours. After a 100 mg dose the peak plasma concentrations were 8.5 times higher than after the 300 mg dose.

In healthy volunteers given the racemic mixture of ibuprofen, the maximum plasma concentrations are not reached until 4-6 hours after a 600 mg dose. This is due to the different metabolism of the enantiomers in the liver.

Ibuprofen is eliminated completely unchanged in the urine after oral administration.

Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

Ibuprofen belongs to a group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSDs), the prototype of which is indomethacin, which has been used clinically for many years. Other NSDs in this group are etodolac, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, piroxicam and tenoxicam.

When the active enantiomer of an NSD reaches its site of action (reduction of prostaglandin synthesis), it binds to and inactivates a membrane-associated enzyme, cyclo-oxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Inhibition of this enzyme prevents the production of arachidonic acid metabolites that produce an inflammatory response. Because of their ability to inhibit the release of arachidonic acid metabolites, NSDs are used to treat conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pn and pn associated with osteoporosis. NSDs are also used to decrease fever, to reduce swelling and to control discomfort associated with trauma, inflammation or infection.

Pharmacodynamics

NSDs decrease the pn and inflammation associated with the conditions listed above. They also inhibit the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, which are involved in the blood clotting process, and therefore reduce the formation of blood clots. Ibuprofen, like other NSDs, also exerts a sedative effect. It relaxes the muscles and has a mild analgesic effect. In large doses (3000 mg) ibuprofen is mildly antihistaminic and weakly anti-allergic.

Aspirin has been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and to have anti-thrombotic properties and to decrease the risk of cerebral and myocardial infarctions and vascular thromboembolic disorders. However, the anti-thrombotic effects of aspirin are limited. NSDs work more effectively than aspirin in reducing the formation of blood clots. All NSDs except nimesulide are considered to be Cox-2 specific.

NSDs have the potential to increase the risk of gastroduodenal ulcers and to increase the risk of myocardial infarctions. When taken at high doses, the NSDs fenoprofen, ibuprofen, and indomethacin may cause gastrointestinal bleeding and may cause or exacerbate hepatic injury. Ibuprofen may cause nephrotoxicity. Aspirin is used in combination with paracetamol, but may exacerbate Reye's syndrome in children.

The analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects of NSDs (mnly ibuprofen and paracetamol) have been shown to be similar to those of codeine and paracetamol. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the NSDs differ from those of codeine. They all have a rapid onset of action, a longer duration of action, and a faster onset of peak effect.

**Tramadol** (Ultram, Ultram ER, Uniflex) is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic drug. It exerts its effects by blocking the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and to a lesser extent dopamine. It was approved in the US in 1981. Its effect has been compared to that of **codeine,** with advantages of a longer duration and higher doses being clmed. It is only avlable as a long-acting form. It is prescribed for the treatment of severe acute or chronic pn. Studies comparing it to **methadone** and other opioids have shown better analgesia and a higher incidence of constipation. The incidence of adverse events and drug interactions with tramadol is not well documented.

Tramadol is widely used in France, in association with paracetamol, as the most effective analgesic/antipyretic combination in adults. There are two studies (EUDORA1 and EUDORA2) showing that tramadol is more effective than codeine when given at the same dose, but at a higher incidence of vomiting. A recent meta-analysis comparing tramadol to codeine showed that tramadol was more effective than codeine for the treatment of acute pn, but that it was less effective than codeine for the management of chronic pn. It has been shown to be more effective than both codeine and paracetam